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The united nature of thermodynamic and gravitational properties of matter is revealed. It is proved that equations of GR gravitational field are the equations of spatialy inhomogeneous thermodynamic state of matter. Relativistic generalization of thermodynamics with strictly extensive molar volume is examined. Falseness of notions about the presence of "black holes", "nonbarionic dark matter" and "dark energy" in the Universe is revealed. The cause of extension of the Universe in people's world is shown. Universe eternity both in future and in the past is substantiated.
It is shown that special and general relativities reflect the gauge effect of motion and gravity on matter. This doesn't allow to observe any changes, originated due to this effect, in proper space and time of matter. The solution of gravitational field equations that correspond to alternative to black holes astronomical bodies is found. Universe eternity both in future and in the past is substantiated.
The theory, stated here, develops main ideas of special (SR) and general (GR) relativities and allows us to newly comprehend and physically interpret some of their postulates and consequences. It is shown that frames of reference of physical coordinates and time (FR), being used in SR and GR, are the FR of gaugeselfdeformated or gaugeselfdeforming bodies. This makes them similar to unique fundamental FR  FR of the undeformable (rigid) and undragable physical vacuum (ether of classical physics, undragable by moving bodies) and, consequently, doesn't deny the existence of the latter. In addition, the phenomena of gravity and Universe expansion are caused by the presence of spatial inhomogeneity and evolutional variability of the properties of physical vacuum (PV) correspondingly, and consequently, by the presence of physical inhomogeneity of space and cosmological time correspondingly. In accordance with that, the fact that matter tend to enthalpy minimum causes gravitational, as well as evolutional, selfcontraction of micro and macroobjects of matter in absolute space of PV. It becomes apparent as gravity and Universe expansion correspondingly. Unobservable in FR of evolutionary selfcontracting matter relativistic shrinkage of radial dimensions and nonuniform selfcontraction (due to spatial inhomogeneity of PV properties) of microobjects of the matter of body cause the curvature of its intrinsic space, which contains all infinite absolute space within the limits of its observer horizon. The absence of such things as so called Big Bang and eternal existence of the Universe in the past, as well as in future, is shown. The principal impossibility of the existence of "black holes" is substantiated. This paper is for the people, who are interested in the physics of space, time and gravity, and cosmology.
Phenomenological justification of the Lorentz contraction the length and gauge justification of the special theory of relativity (SR) are set out. We prove the mutual consistency of the SR and the existence of ether. The physical essence of the twins paradox shows. FR Schwarzschild solution is based on assumptions about the evolutionary isoenergetic contraction of matter at the level of elementary particles. This contraction causes expansion Universe in Schwarzschild FR. The phenomenon of gravity is a consequence of physical inhomogeneity of space. It is caused by the tendency of matter to minimize its energy at rest. Investigated various nonrigid frame reference of spatial coordinates and time (FR). Unobservable Lorentz excess of reducing the radial dimensions and metrically nonuniform compression of microscopic matter (as a result of the gravitational polarization of the ether in the FR evolutionarily contracting matter) are the cause of the curvature of its own space of matter. The latter contains all the absolute unlimited space inside observer horizon.
The cardinal difference between relativistic gravithermodynamics (RGTD) and general relativity (GR) is that in
RGTD the extranuclear thermodynamic characteristics of matter are used in the tensor of energymomentum to describe
only its quasiequilibrium motion. For the description of the inertial motion in RGTD only the hypothetical intranuclear
gravithermodynamic characteristics of matter are used. Exactly this fact allows avoid the necessity of nonbarionic dark
matter in the Universe in principle. Evolutionary selfcontraction of microobjects of lower layers of
gravithermodynamically bonded matter outpaces the similar selfcontraction of its upper layers. This is the exact reason
of the curvature of intrinsic space of matter. That is why gravitational field itself should be primarily considered as the
field of spatial inhomogeneity of evolutionary decreasing of the size of matter microobjects in the background
Euclidean space of expanding Universe. In correspondence to this the gravitational field itself is the field of spatial
inhomogeneity of gravithermodynamic state of dense matter of compact astronomical objects, as well as of strongly
rarefied gasdust matter of space vacuum. And, therefore, the gravitational field fundamentally cannot exist without
matter. That is why it is not an independent form of matter. It is shown that equations of the gravitational field of GR
should be considered as equations of spatially inhomogeneous gravithermodynamic state of only utterly cooled down
matter. This matter can only be the hypothetical substances such as ideal gas, ideal liquid and the matter of absolutely
solid body. The real matter will be inevitably cooling down for infinite time and never will reach the state that is
described by the equations of gravitational field of the GR. Only conditional identity of inertial mass of moving matter
to its gravitational mass only by gravityquantum clock, which is located in the point, from which the matter started its
inertial motion, and due to the usage of corrected value of gravitational constant in its pseudocentric intrinsic frame of
reference of spatial coordinates and time, is justified. This is related to the equivalence of inertial mass of matter to the
Hamiltonian of its inert free energy, while the gravitational mass of matter is equivalent to the Lagrangian of its
ordinary internal energy. It was proved that total energy of matter of inertially moving body is equal in all global
gravithermodynamic frames of references of spatial coordinates and time (GTFR) that are also inertially moving
relatively to matter. The temporal invariance of not only the momentum but also of Lagrangian of ordinary internal
energy and of equivalent to it gravitational mass of matter is justified. And that is precisely why there is the temporal
invariance and a conform Lorentzinvariance of thermodynamic potentials and parameters in examined modification of
transformations of the special theory of relativity (SR). Conformal relativistic transformations of increments of metrical
spatial segments and metrical temporal intervals (instead of increments of coordinates and coordinate time of SR) were
received. Exactly this fact allows avoid not only the twins paradox when twins are inertially moving but also the
necessity of the dark energy in the Universe. It is also shown that the tensor of energymomentum of matter (right side
of the gravitational field equation) should be formed not being based on external thermodynamic parameters, but being
based exactly on the intranuclear gravithermodynamic parameters. In this case the observed motion of astronomical
objects of the galaxies is provided at arbitrary small density of mass of the matter on their periphery and, consequently,
the presence of dark nonbaryonic matter in the Universe is unnecessary. Of course, bodies free fall in gravitational
field is an original realization of their tendency to increase the evolutionary selfcontraction of microobjects of their
matter, and the realization of the tendency of the whole gravitationally bonded inhomogeneous matter to the minimum
of the integral values of its inert free energy and thermodynamic Gibbs free energy. Bodies that fall accelerate
independently in spatially inhomogeneous medium of the outer space or atmosphere. Such bodies transform their
continuously released intraatomic energy into kinetic energy. It is shown that in case of bodies’ free fall the
gravitational deceleration of the rate of their intrinsic time is completely compensated by the motion due to isotropic
allround conformal gauge selfcontraction of the size of falling bodies in the background Euclidean space of the
Universe. Clocks that fall free are inertially moving and, therefore, continue to count time at the same rate as when they
were in the state of rest. Similarly, the rate of time of astronomical body is not changed in the process of its motion in
elliptical orbit. The dilatation of intrinsic time of distant galaxies is also absent, which points on the fact that
Etherington identity does not correspond to reality. The fact that Hubble’s redshift is linearly dependent on transversal
comoving distance instead of luminosity distance is justified. It is shown that mentioned above fact corresponds to
astronomical observations. According to this the presence of dark energy in the Universe is also unnecessary. For the
collective gravithermodynamic Gibbs microstates the connection between all thermodynamic potentials and parameters
of matter have been found. This connection is realized with the help of several wave functions that can take arbitrary
values with certain probability. The quantum equation of gravitational field have been found, the solutions of which set
the spatial distribution of gravitational radius of matter in its every new gravithermodynamic state with the polynomial
function with the next more high degree. The indicator of the degree of this function of continuously cooling down
matter can successively take only integer and semiinteger values. That is why the process of cooling down of the
whole RGTDbonded matter is the quantum process that is caused by its spontaneous transition to the polynomial
function with more high value of degree and, therefore, to the next quantum collective state.
It is shown that equations of the gravitational field of General Relativity should be considered just as equations of spatially inhomogeneous thermodynamic state of utterly cooled down matter. This matter can only be the hypothetical substances such as ideal gas, ideal liquid and the matter of absolutely solid body. The real matter will be inevitably cooling down for infinite time and never will reach the state that is described by the equations of gravitational field. Gravitational field itself is the field of spatial inhomogeneity of thermodynamic state of dense matter of compact astronomical objects, as well as of strongly rarefied gasdust matter of space vacuum. Gravitational field is not an independent form of matter. Bodies free fall in gravitational field – is an original realization of tendency of the whole gravitationally bonded inhomogeneous matter to the minimums of the integral values of enthalpy and Gibbs free energy. Bodies that fall independently accelerate in spatially inhomogeneous medium of the outer space or atmosphere. Such bodies transform their continuously released intraatomic energy into kinetic energy.
Generalized relativistic transformations of increments of coordinates and rime are examined. These transformations take into account possible influence of thermodynamic state of moving matter on its relativistic deformation and on the dilation of its proper time. It is shown that these transformations cause only inhomogeneous angular distribution of relativistic values of gravibaric velocity of light, which is an alternative to coordinatelike velocity of light in General Relativity. Also these transformations cause the presence of scaling factor in timelike interval. The possibility of experimental verification of the influence of pressure in moving matter on relativistic dilation of its proper time is examined.
Equations of thermal state of matter, which satisfy Tolman condition for thermal equilibrium in spatially inhomogeneous equilibrium states of matter and guarantee the possibility of adiabatic coolingdown of this matter in the early Universe uniformly filled by it, are examined. It is shown that all thermodynamic parameters and characteristics of such matter are determined or interconnected by the relations, which includes gravitational constant, as well as cosmological constant l (or Hubble constant that is determined by it). This denotes the thermodynamic nature of both gravitational field inside of matter and the phenomenon of Universe expansion. All results are obtained here being based on initial statements of General Relativity and, therefore, they do not fully correspond to gravithermodynamics, which conceptually differs from General Relativity, in fact.
The majority of theoretical misconceptions and the most significant misunderstandings in modern astronomy, cosmology and physics are caused by a purely mathematical approach and ignoring philosophical comprehension of physical reality and, as a result, by not deep enough understanding of the essence of certain physical phenomena and objects. Foremost, it's all about phenomena and objects that are under consideration by Special and General Relativity. Author have analyzed historical roots of discussed here misconceptions and misunderstandings and have shown the possible ways to overcome them. Such constructive approach gives us the hope for getting rid of the majority of revealed here misconceptions and misunderstandings. Unfortunately, this is the problem of not only the astronomy and cosmology, but also of physics in general. Our perception and reflection of physical reality is still very primitive and, foremost, mainly mechanistic, macrocentric and anthropolimited. The unreality of black holes, Big Bang, nonbaryonic dark matter, dark energy, photons and neutrinos is justified in details. The current usage of exponential scale instead of metrically homogeneous scale of cosmological time in cosmology is shown. Therefore, the ignorance of the fact that only the infinitely far cosmological past on the event horizon and infinitely far cosmological future on Schwarzschild sphere are simultaneous with any event in people’s world is shown. The ignorance of the fact that this pseudohorizon covers the past of all infinite Universe is also shown. The possibility of existence of antimatter inside the neutron stars and quasars that have the hollow body topology and mirror symmetry of their intrinsic space is justified. The big redshift and long lasting high luminosity of quasars are explained. The spatiotemporal noninvariance of the gravitational constant and the fictiveness of Etherington's identity are proved. The absence of gravitational fields in the Universe up to the moment of discontinuity of its uniform gas continuum is shown. The origination of the gravity phenomenon is related to the formation of spatially inhomogeneous thermodynamic states by the matter and to the tendency of the whole gravithermodynamically bonded matter to reach the maximum of the integral value of its intranuclear Gibbs energy as well as to reach the minimum of the integral value of its thermodynamic Gibbs energy. The fact that spatial distribution of gravitational field strength, defined by logarithmic gravitational potential, perfectly corresponds to astronomical observations is shown. The fact that Hubble’s redshift is linearly dependent on comoving distance instead of luminosity distance is justified. It is shown that mentioned above fact corresponds to astronomical observations. It is concluded that such concepts as corpuscle and elementary particle are purely macroscopic. The inadmissibility of the presence of “thinginitself” in physics is shown. The possibility of spiralwave nature of the matter microobjects – the terminal local drains of turns of the spiral waves of high frequency spacetime modulations of the dielectric and magnetic permeabilities of the physical vacuum (singularities of the field according to Einstein hypothesis) – as a whole is shown.
The general solution of the equations of the gravitational field of the galaxy with an additional variable parameter is found. A typical dependence of the zonal velocity of the orbital motion of stars on the parameter b=(vc/c)2 and on the radial distance r to the center of the galaxy has the following form: V=Ve{[(b/be)n+(be/b)n]/2}1/2= c{[2nln(r/re)]2+(c/Ve)4}1/4, where: vc – coordinate velocity of light, re – the radius of the friable galactic nucleus, on the surface of which the linear velocity of the orbital motion of stars can take its maximum value Ve, n – additional variable parameter that determines in GR the distribution of the average mass density mainly in the friable galactic nucleus. The velocity V is close to Kepler only for n>225. At n<215, it is slightly less than Ve, even at the edge of the galaxy. The maximum allowable value of the average mass density of a substance outside the friable galactic nucleus [μ]≈V2/4πGr2 negligibly weakly depends on the parameter n in GR. If the energymomentum tensor is formed not on the basis of external thermodynamic parameters, but on the basis of intranuclear gravithermodynamic parameters of the substance, then the dependence of the average mass of the substance on the value of the parameter n becomes very significant. The permissible value of the average mass density of matter outside the friable galactic nucleus [μ]=b[2V2c2(a1)]/(1b)aκc2r2 is determined by the value of the parameter a, which is responsible for the curvature of space. And it can be arbitrarily small. Therefore, in relativistic gravithermodynamics, in contrast to GR, there can be no shortage of baryonic mass.
It is shown that, according to GR, only the transverse metric distances – the transverse comoving distance and the angular diameter distance similar to it – can obey the Hubble linear dependence. The transverse comoving distance DM=(c/H)z belongs to the comoving frame of reference in the expanding Universe (CFREU) and is determined by the redshift of the emission wavelength z=Δλ/λ0. The angular diameter distance DA=(c/H)ž belongs to the frame of reference (FR) of the observer of an expanding Universe and is determined by the redshift of the frequency of the emission wave ž=Δν/ν0= z/(1+z). The luminosity distance DL=(c/H)(1+z)1/2z is not the transverse metric distance and therefore its dependence on redshift is nonlinear. It is taken into account that the Hubble constant, like the length standards and the constant of the velocity of light c, is a fundamentally unchangeable quantity in the rigid FRs. Its exact value is empirically found H=с(Λ/3)1/2= (π4α/8NDn)νbn= (2π/3)αtp2(πνbn/2)3= (2π/3)Ge2(mn/4ħ)3= 2,018859•1018 [s1]= 62,29548 [km/sMpc], where: Λ is the cosmological constant, NDn=1,5(tpνbn)2= 3πchmn2/G= 0,999885•1040 is the neutron large Dirac number, α=e2/cħ is the fine structure constant, νbn=mnc2/2πħ is the de Broglie wave frequency of the neutron, tp=(c5ħG)1/2 is the Planck time, ħ=h/2π is the DiracPlanck constant, G is the Newton’s gravitational constant, e is the electric charge of the proton and electron, mn is the mass of neutron. It was shown that Etherington’s identity is paralogism. Etherington’s identity is based on the imaginary relativistic dilation of intrinsic time of the galaxy by (1+z) times, but the presence of a relativistic anisotropy of luminosity of stars quickly moving away from it is ignored in the FR of observer. Etherington did not take into account the fact that the Universe is homogeneous only in CFREU, and recklessly made a “cocktail” of the phenomena and features inherent in two different FRs.
(GAUGEEVOLUTIONAL INTERPRETATION OF SR AND GR)
Gravitationaloptical gradient lens, comoving with radiation, is formed in observer's frame of reference of time and spatial coordinates (FR) due to evolutional decrease of average density of matter in the Universe as well as due to evolutional decrease of refraction index of interstellar medium. This diverging lens and Hubble gravitational lens together form virtual image of all infinitely far points of Euclidean background space of FR, comoving with expanding Universe, on its focal surface, which is the imaginary observer horizon. Events that take place in different points but simultaneous in observer's FR are nonsimultaneous in cosmological time of FR, commoving with Universe, due to Universe expansion. Therefore world point of imaginary Big Bang is present in observer's intrinsic space at every moment of his proper time. This point and observer's dislocation point are the opposite poles of fourdimensional hypersurface of observer's space. When gradient lens is not taken into account one may come to a conclusion that Hubble lens forms the horizon of cosmological past (imaginary observer horizon) in vacuum external solutions of equations of gravitational field when cosmological constant is nonzero. This also leads to spatial homogeneity of the negative power of global gravitational lens and, consequently, this leads to a linear dependence of red shift of radiation spectrum of astronomical objects on the distance to those objects. However, when gradient lens is taken into account this dependence becomes nonlinear and corresponds to accelerated expansion of the Universe, while imaginary observer horizon of cosmological past degenerates into point of imaginary Big Bang of the Universe. This is similar to degeneration of the imaginary horizon of cosmological future (Schwarzschild sphere) in internal solution of equations of gravitational field.
Anisotropy of the luminous intensity of distant astronomical objects of expanding Universe in intrinsic space of the observer is shown. The relativistic distanceluminosity relation, by which radial coordinate of astronomical object is being determined taking into account anisotropy of its luminous intensity, is received. As it follows from this relation, values of radial coordinates of distant astronomical objects in intrinsic space of the observer are much smaller than values of their coordinates, calculated by classical distanceluminosity relation. This makes the presence of such hypothetical components of the Universe as dark matter and dark energy unnecessary in principle.
Main differential equations of relativistic thermodynamics in contravariant and covariant representations are examined. The simplified form of equations of relativistic thermodynamics is proposed. This form guarantees taking into account gravity influence on matter without use of any complex mathematical apparatus of general relativity. The physical essence of Planck and Ott conjugated relativistic temperatures and of mutually complemented contravariant and covariant relativistic values and other thermodynamic parameters and characteristics of matter is revealed. Noninvariance of relativistic values of pressure is substantiated. Mathematical expressions for contravariant and covariant values of linear momentum are received. According to these expressions, these values of linear momentum form fourmomentum not with enthalpy but with lagrangian and hamiltonian correspondingly.
The possibility of evolutionarity of the process of Universe expansion, and thereby  the possibility to guarantee Universe eternity not only in future, but also in the past, is shown. The reality of Universe eternity is confirmed by the results of observations of distant supernovas and is based on the counting of cosmological time in the frame of reference not comoving with matter, in which by the Weyl hypothesis galaxies of expanding Universe are quasimotionless.
The solution of equations of GR and thermodynamics for ideal liquid, which has topology of hollow body, is examined. Spatial distributions of all main thermodynamical and gravithermodynamical parameters and characteristics of ideal liquid are obtained. The value of photometrical radius of median singular surface, which separate antimatter from matter, is derived.
The possibility of getting a linear element (interval) of Schwarzschild frame of reference of spatial coordinates and time (FR) is shown, founded on the existence of fundamental (Newton absolute) space, which is formally independent on matter and is only a container for it [1]. In addition to it, the presence of evolutionary changeability and spatial inhomogeneity of properties of the physical vacuum (PV), filling all this absolutely rigid (nonexpanding) Euclidean (noncurved) infinite space, is assumed.
The initial cause of unambiguously younger age of the second twin than age of the first twin at the moment of their meeting is pointed. This initial cause is not the accelerated motion of the second twin, but the fact of changing of its direction or just the velocity of its motion in space itself and, consequently, the fact of its transition from one inertial reference system of spatial coordinates and time (IFR) to another. This is concerned to changing in new IFR of spatial as well as of time coordinates of events, which have realized before, including events, information about which have not come to the twin by the moment of its transition to new IFR. It is shown that imaginary twin paradox (clock paralogism) takes place in general relativity (GR) only because of the impossibility of mutual distinguishing of standard time (pathlike proper time of moving object) and coordinatelike internal time of the IFR (or any other FR) and because of neglect of the necessity of recalculation of events time coordinates as a result.
It is shown here that Lorentz transformations are caused by gauge effect of motion on matter (principle nonobservability of effect of motion on matter). This gauge effect of motion is caused by interdependence and mutual determination of propagation velocity of interaction between matter elementary particles and of rate of course of matter proper (standard) time. The Lorentz transformations are derived without any linearity assumptions and being based only on the presence of relativistic shrinkage of the length of moving body and on clock desynchronization at its slowest transfer along this body.
(Article from Spacetime&Substance Journal No.3(28)2005 (http://www.spacetime.narod.ru/28.html). It is shown here, that relativistic shrinkage of the length of moving body appears itself (without the influence of external forces). This shrinkage is caused by isobaric selfcontraction of body matter and by propagation of the strength of inertia forces field together with the front of body intrinsic time. A mechanism of kinetic energy filling (accumulation) of a body is considered and propagation of the phase waves of perturbation of gravitational field at supraluminal velocity is substantiated here.
The possibility to avoid physical realizability of cosmological singularity (singularity of Big Bang of the Universe) directly in the orthodoxal general theory of relativity (GR) is substantiated. This can take place in the case of counting of cosmological time in frame of reference of coordinates and time (FR) not comoving with matter, in which by the Weyl hypothesis galaxies of the expanding Universe are motionless. The absence of any limitations of the value of mass of astronomical body, which selfcontracts in Weyl FR, when it has hollow topological form in the space of Weyl FR and mirror symmetry of its intrinsic space, is shown. Because of this symmetry, both external and internal boundary surfaces of body are observed as convex. At that, in the "turned inside out" internal part of the intrinsic space (in the FullerWheeler lost antiworld) unlike external part, instead of the phenomenon of expansion phenomenon of contraction of "internal universe" is observed. And there is antimatter instead of matter in this internal part of the space. Inevitability of selforganization in physical vacuum of spiralwave structural elements, which correspond to elementary particles, and universal electromagnetic nature of all nonfictive particles are substantiated. Ultrahigh luminosity of quasars and certain types of supernovas is caused by annihilation of matter and antimatter.
The possibility that the evolutional process of Universe expansion is inertial (isoenergetic) also at nonzero value of cosmological constant of equations of GR gravitational field is examined according to Einstein physical notions about free (inertial) motion of the body along geodesic world lines of spacetime continuum. This makes the presence of "dark energy' in the Universe unnecessary. It is shown that classical photometric method doesn't take into account the curvature of finite intrinsic space of observer (which corresponds to antigravitational field) as well as the relativistic deformation of angular apertures of distant galaxies. Because of this, instead of photometric distances to these galaxies in observer space, continuously renormalized distances (much bigger than photometric distances) to the galaxies in infinite euclidean fundamental space are being determined. This fundamental space together with cosmological time form fundamental frame of references of coordinates and time. Exactly in this, not comoving with matter, frame of reference galaxies of expanding Universe take part only in peculiar motions by the Weyl hypothesis. And this is the cause of the fictive need of the existence of "dark matter" in the Universe.
Main differential equations of relativistic thermodynamics in contravariant and covariant representations are examined. The physical essence of Planck and Ott relativistic temperatures and of mutually complemented contravariant and covariant relativistic values and other thermodynamic parameters and characteristics of matter is revealed. Noninvariance of relativistic values of pressure is substantiated.
Topological configurations of intrinsic spacetime of both rotating bodies and very massive astronomical bodies are analyzed. Mathematical expressions for components of linear element of rotating body, using which for analysis of highprecision GPSmeasurements we can achieve the lower level of mistakes in measurements of spatial coordinates, are examined.
The united solution of equations of GR and thermodynamics for ideal liquid, which has topology of hollow body, is examined. Spatial distributions of all main thermodynamical and gravithermodynamical parameters and characteristics of ideal liquid are obtained. It is shown that these parameters and characteristics take on principally unreachable for them values on the singular surface. This denotes physical unrealizability of gravitational singularities. The value of photometrical radius of median singular surface, which separate antimatter from matter, is derived.
The interconnection between gravithermodynamic and thermodynamic parameters and characteristic functions, which complete each other, is examined for ideal liquid as an example. The possibility to remove some ambiguities and contradictions at the turn of relativity and thermodynamics is examined.
It is shown that in the case of very big value of mass of astronomical body minimum of integral value of body enthalpy is being reached. This minimum corresponds to reflection symmetric configuration of intrinsic space of the body, which was found by Fuller and Wheeler. In euclidean fundamental space of not comoving with matter frame of reference, in which by the Weyl hypothesis galaxies of expanding Universe are quasimotionless, such body, according to the solution of GR equations, is hollow. The presence of phenomenon of contraction of "internal Universe" in internal empty halfspace of hollow body corresponds to stability of antimatter in this space. Therefore median singular spherical surface, which is the locus of "centers" of gravity of such body, prevent annihilation of matter and antimatter in hollow neutron stars (which are considered as black holes by mistake) and guarantee possibility of their only noncatastrophical annihilation in quasars. And so, very high luminosity of quasars and initially hpllow supernovas is caused by annihilation of matter and antimetter.
The possibility to avoid the singularity of Big Bang of the Universe in general theory of relativity, and thereby  the possibility to guarantee Universe eternity not only in future, but also in the past, is shown. The reality of Universe eternity is confirmed by the results of observations of distant supernovas and is based on the counting of cosmological time in the frame of reference not comoving with matter, in which by the Weyl hypothesis galaxies of expanding Universe are quasimotionless.
It is shown that observer horizon (which is determined by lambdaterm in gravitational field equations) of intrinsic space is the pseudohorizon of infinitely far cosmological past, and Schwarzschild sphere is the pseudohorizon of infinitely far cosmological future of the Universe. This is connected with nonsimultaneity (in intrinsic frame of reference of matter that is evolutionally selfcontracting in NewtonWeyl absolute space) of events that have the same cosmological age, but realized on different distances from observer. Evolutionary process of Universe expansion is caused by unobservable in principle in matter FR (in FR of people's world) process of gauge selfcontraction of matter in absolute space.
Unified electromagnetic nature of all fundamental interactions and nonfictious elementary particles of matter is shown.
The possibility of establishing of mutual correspondence between nonfictious elementary particles of matter and spiral autowave selfsustaining structural elements in physical vacuum, taking into account mirror symmetry of intrinsic spaces of some elementary particles, is examined. The possibility to avoid realizability of singularity of Big Bang of the Universe in general theory of relativity is examined. This can take place in the case of counting of cosmological time in frame of reference of coordinates and time (FR) not comoving with matter, in which by the Weyl hypothesis galaxies of the expanding Universe are motionless.
The absence of any limitations of the value of mass of astronomical body, when it has hollow topological form in NewtonWeyl absolute space and mirror symmetry of its intrinsic space, is shown. Because of this symmetry, both external and internal boundary surfaces of body are observed as convex. At that, in the "turned inside out" internal part of the intrinsic space (in the FullerWheeler lost antiworld) phenomenon of contraction of "internal universe" is observed. And there is antimatter instead of matter in this part of the space. Ultrahigh luminosity of quasars and certain types of supernovas is caused by annihilation of matter and antimatter. Physical essence of the concept of spacetime is shown. Various fallacies, connected with imperfect understanding of this essence (twins paradox, Big Bang of the Universe, black holes, time machine, spacetime of living and sentient substance) are examined.
The conception of Universe expansion, which is based on the counting of cosmological time in frame of reference of spatial coordinates and time (FR) that is not comoving with matter  fundamental FR of physical vacuum, is proposed.
It is shown that under the influence of very strong gravitational field the collapse of matter into hollow astronomical body, which is alternative to the "black hole" and contains antimatter in internal halfspace, takes place. Ultrahigh luminosity of quasars and some types of supernovas is caused by the annihilation of matter and antimatter. According to corpuscularwave dualism all elementary particles of matter have both corpuscular and wave properties. The combination of those properties in one physical object is paradoxical according to classical physics. Corpuscle are local. On the contrary waves are not local. However this contradiction is easily solved if we consider that all nonfictive elementary particles are local outlets or sources of the turns of spiral waves.
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